GLOSSARY

APICAL ABSCESS

  • Pocket of infection at the root of a tooth

CANINES

  • Conical teeth found between the incisors and cheek teeth. They are variously called ‘fighting teeth’, ‘fangs’, ‘tushes’, or, ‘bridal teeth’. And their function is tearing. Normally four are present in geldings and stallions, rarely present in mares.

CARIES

  • Decay of bone or tooth.

CORDAL

  • Towards the tail.

CHRONIC

  • Continuing over a long period of time; prolonged, lingering. In medical terminology, the opposite of acute.

CLINICAL CROWN

  • The erupted part of the tooth covered by enamel.

COLIC

  • Spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ accompanies by pain; any abdominal pain e.g. kidney, bladder, stomach, intestine, mesentery.

DECIDUOUS

  • Falling off or shedding which occurs seasonally or at a certain stage of development in the life cycle.

DIAGONAL INCISORS (SLANTED)

  • Incisor occlusal surface is slanted laterally one direction or the other from horizontal, not level.

DIASTEMA

  • A space between teeth; in horses the area between the incisors or canines and the premolars is the largest interdental space, and is referred to as the bars, where the bit lies.

EQUILIBRATE

  • To balance; floating teeth to improve dental function and restore more normal bio-mechanics by balancing apposing elements or forces.

ERUPTION

  • The rate at which the crown protrudes above the gum line; the rate of eruption normally is adjusted to match the rate of wear of the grinding surface of the teeth.

GALVAYNE’S GROOVE

  • A vertically – oriented, tapering groove in the lateral surface of the permanent upper ( 3rd ) lateral incisors of the horse which generally begins to show below the gum line at 10 years old, is half way down the incisor at fifteen, clear down at twenty, half gone at twenty five, and clear gone at thirty years of age.

GINGIVITIS

  • Inflammation of the gums.

INCISOR REDUCTION

  • Shortening the length of the incisor to improve incisor and /or cheek teeth occlusion.

INCISOR REALIGNMENT

  • Changing the incisor table angles by reduction to improve incisor and/or cheek teeth occlusion.

MANDIBLE

  • The lower jaw bones; the inferior jaw of the horse.

MAXILLA

  • The bone of the upper stationary jaw, which contains the wider superior arcades of the cheek teeth in the horse, which act as a mill stone against which the lower ‘grinders’ work.

OVERLONG

  • Teeth which are abnormally or undesirably long.

OVERBITE

  • The upper incisors are more labial than the lower incisors, and have no occlusal contact; i.e. parrot mouth.

PALATE

  • Roof of the mouth

PERIODONTAL

  • Literally in Latin “around or near the teeth”, usually used to refer to gums or other soft tissues which surround the teeth

PERIODONTITIS

  • Inflammation of the tissue surrounding the tooth.

PLAQUE

  • Dental calculus; tartar; most commonly found on the canines.

PROPHYLAXIS

  • Preventive care. In horse dentistry, this means regular dental maintenance.

PROTUBERANCE, PROTUBERANT

  • Bulging out beyond the surrounding surface.

PULP CHAMBERS / CAVITIES

  • Cavities or canal in the central, lower portion of horse teeth which house nerves and blood vessels that gives vitality to the tooth.

RESERVE CROWN

  • The unerupted part of the tooth covered by enamel.

ROSTRAL

  • Towards the front of the mouth; toward the snout.

SINUSITIS

  • Inflammation of a sinus or of sinuses.

STEP TEETH

  • Stair – step – like protrusion(s) on the occlusal surface of the cheek teeth.

TRIADAN SYSTEM

  • Dental nomenclature utilising three digits to identify each tooth. The first digit refers to the quadrant (1 for upper right, 2 for upper left, 3 for lower left and 4 for lower right) and the last 2 digits refer to the tooth. In equine dentistry the latter 2 digits go from 01 to 11 (e.g. 401 to 411)

UNDERBITE

  • The lower incisors project in front of the upper incisors; e.g. sow mouth or monkey mouth.

WAVES

  • Undulation(s) of the occlusal surface, often caused by an overpowering tooth (teeth).
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